How to Create and Use JavaScript Prototypes

JavaScript prototypes are a fundamental concept that allows you to add properties and methods to objects. By extending the prototype of a constructor function, you can share common functionality among instances. In this guide, we'll explore how to create and use prototypes in JavaScript, and provide practical examples to illustrate their usage.

Creating a Constructor Function

To create and use prototypes, start by defining a constructor function. Constructor functions are used to create instances of objects with shared properties and methods. Here's an example of a constructor function for a simple Person object:

function Person(name, age) { = name;
this.age = age;

Adding Methods to the Prototype

Methods that should be shared among all instances of the object can be added to the prototype of the constructor function. This ensures that each instance has access to the same method, saving memory and improving performance. Here's how to add a method to the Person prototype:

Person.prototype.greet = function() {
console.log('Hello, my name is ' + + ' and I am ' + this.age + ' years old.');

Creating Instances

With the constructor function and prototype method in place, you can create instances of the object:

const person1 = new Person('Alice', 30);
const person2 = new Person('Bob', 25);

Using Prototype Methods

Now, you can use the methods defined in the prototype for each instance:

person1.greet(); // Outputs: 'Hello, my name is Alice and I am 30 years old.'
person2.greet(); // Outputs: 'Hello, my name is Bob and I am 25 years old.'

Modifying Prototypes

If you need to modify the prototype of an object after creating instances, those changes will affect all instances. For example, you can add a new method to the Person prototype:

Person.prototype.introduce = function() {
console.log('Hi, I am ' + + '. Nice to meet you!');
person1.introduce(); // Outputs: 'Hi, I am Alice. Nice to meet you!'
person2.introduce(); // Outputs: 'Hi, I am Bob. Nice to meet you!'


JavaScript prototypes are a powerful way to create and manage shared methods and properties among objects. By defining constructor functions and extending their prototypes, you can efficiently create instances with common functionality. This approach is essential for object-oriented programming in JavaScript and promotes code reusability and maintainability.

Happy coding with JavaScript prototypes!