JavaScript Scope - Lexical Scope

Lexical scope, also known as static scope, is a fundamental concept in JavaScript that determines the visibility and accessibility of variables within a block of code based on where they are declared. Understanding lexical scope is essential for writing clean and maintainable JavaScript code. In this guide, we'll explore how lexical scope works and provide examples to illustrate its usage.

Global Scope

The global scope is the outermost scope in JavaScript. Variables declared in the global scope are accessible from any part of your code. Here's an example:

// Variable in global scope
const globalVar = 'I am in the global scope';
function printGlobalVar() {
printGlobalVar(); // Outputs: "I am in the global scope"

In this example, the variable globalVar is declared in the global scope and can be accessed by the function printGlobalVar.

Local Scope

Local scope refers to the scope within a function or block. Variables declared inside a function or block are local to that scope and cannot be accessed from outside. Here's an example:

function printLocalVar() {
// Variable in local scope
const localVar = 'I am in the local scope';
printLocalVar(); // Outputs: "I am in the local scope"
// Attempting to access localVar outside the function will result in an error
console.log(localVar); // Throws an error

In this example, the variable localVar is declared in the local scope of the function printLocalVar and cannot be accessed outside of the function.

Nested Scope

JavaScript allows for nested scopes, where inner scopes have access to variables in outer scopes. Here's an example of nested lexical scope:

const outerVar = 'I am in the outer scope';
function outerFunction() {
const innerVar = 'I am in the inner scope'; function innerFunction() {
console.log(outerVar); // Accessing outerVar from the outer scope
console.log(innerVar); // Accessing innerVar from the same scope
} innerFunction();

In this example, the inner function innerFunction has access to variables declared in both the outer and inner scopes.


Lexical scope is a crucial concept in JavaScript that influences how variables are accessed and where they are visible within your code. Understanding scope is essential for writing clean, organized, and error-free JavaScript programs. By knowing where variables are declared and where they can be used, you can write more maintainable and predictable code.

Happy coding with lexical scope in JavaScript!