Flask provides built-in support for managing user sessions and implementing user authentication, allowing you to create secure web applications. In this guide, we'll explore how to use Flask sessions to keep user data between requests and implement user authentication for your Flask-based web application. We'll use cookies and sessions to manage user state and access control.

Step 1: Setting Up Your Flask Application

Start by setting up your Flask application. Create a virtual environment and install Flask. Here's a sample directory structure:


Step 2: Creating the Login Form

Create an HTML login form for users to enter their credentials. Here's a basic structure for your login form template (login.html):

<!DOCTYPE html>
<form action="/login" method="post">
<input type="text" name="username" placeholder="Username" required>
<input type="password" name="password" placeholder="Password" required>
<button type="submit">Login</button>

Step 3: Handling User Authentication

Create routes and functions to handle user authentication. You can store user data in Flask sessions. Here's an example:

from flask import Flask, render_template, request, redirect, session, url_for
app = Flask(__name)
app.secret_key = 'your_secret_key'
users = {'user1': 'password1', 'user2': 'password2'}
def login():
return render_template('login.html')
@app.route('/login', methods=['POST'])
def do_login():
username = request.form['username']
password = request.form['password']
if username in users and users[username] == password:
session['username'] = username
return redirect(url_for('dashboard'))
return 'Invalid login credentials'
def dashboard():
if 'username' in session:
return 'Welcome, ' + session['username'] + '! This is your dashboard.'
return 'You are not logged in.'
def logout():
session.pop('username', None)
return 'Logged out'
if __name__ == '__main__':

Step 4: Running Your Application

Run your Flask application using the following command:


Access your web application in a browser, and you can now log in and access a dashboard.


Flask sessions and user authentication are essential for creating secure web applications. By following the steps in this guide, you can use Flask to manage user sessions and implement user authentication. These techniques are crucial for protecting sensitive data and controlling access to your web application's features.