Control Flow in Ruby: If, Else, and Case Statements

Introduction to Control Flow

Control flow in Ruby allows you to control the execution of your program based on conditions. If, else, and case statements are essential tools for decision-making in your code. In this guide, we'll explore these control flow structures in Ruby and how to use them effectively.

If Statements

The if statement is used to conditionally execute a block of code:

age = 25
if age < 18
puts "You are a minor."
puts "You are an adult."

In the example above, the if statement checks if the age is less than 18 and executes different code based on the condition.

Else-If Statements

You can use else-if (elsif) statements to handle multiple conditions:

grade = "B"
if grade == "A"
puts "Excellent!"
elsif grade == "B"
puts "Good job!"
puts "Needs improvement."

Here, the elsif statement allows you to check multiple conditions in a sequence.

Case Statements

The case statement is a powerful tool for handling multiple conditions in a concise way:

day = "Wednesday"
case day
when "Monday"
puts "Start of the week."
when "Wednesday"
puts "Middle of the week."
when "Friday"
puts "End of the week."
puts "Weekend or an unknown day."

Case statements allow you to compare a value against multiple possibilities and execute code based on the matching condition.


Control flow structures like if, else, and case statements are essential for making decisions and controlling the flow of your Ruby programs. Mastering these structures will help you write more dynamic and responsive code.

Practice using these control flow structures in your Ruby programs to become a proficient Ruby developer. For more information, refer to the official Ruby documentation.

Happy coding!