Data validation is a crucial part of any application to ensure that the data it processes is accurate and safe. Spring Boot provides an easy and effective way to validate data using its validation framework. In this guide, we'll explore Spring Boot's validation features, complete with sample code and explanations.


Before you start, make sure you have the following prerequisites:

Using Annotations for Validation

Spring Boot provides several validation annotations that can be used on fields of your model classes. These annotations help ensure that data adheres to the specified rules. Here's a sample model class with validation annotations:

import javax.validation.constraints.NotBlank;
import javax.validation.constraints.Size;
public class User {
@NotBlank(message = "Username is required")
@Size(min = 5, max = 20, message = "Username must be between 5 and 20 characters")
private String username; // Other fields and getters/setters

In this example, we use the @NotBlank annotation to ensure that the "username" field is not empty, and the @Size annotation to specify the allowed size range.

Validating Request Parameters

You can easily validate request parameters in Spring Boot controller methods by using the @Valid annotation. Here's an example of a controller method that validates a "User" object:

import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.PostMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestBody;
import javax.validation.Valid;
public class UserController {
public User createUser(@Valid @RequestBody User user) {
// Handle the validated user
return user;

The @Valid annotation tells Spring Boot to validate the "user" object, and if validation fails, it will return a 400 Bad Request response.

Custom Validation Rules

If the built-in validation annotations aren't enough, you can create custom validation rules. To do this, create a custom validation annotation and a corresponding validator class. Here's an example of a custom validation annotation:

import javax.validation.Constraint;
import javax.validation.Payload;
import java.lang.annotation.*;
@Constraint(validatedBy = CustomValidator.class)
@Target({ElementType.METHOD, ElementType.FIELD})
public @interface CustomValidation {
String message() default "Invalid data";
Class<?>[] groups() default {};
Class<? extends Payload>[] payload() default {};

The corresponding validator class, "CustomValidator," should implement the validation logic.


Spring Boot's validation features make data validation easy and effective. This guide covered using built-in validation annotations, validating request parameters in controllers, and creating custom validation rules. With these tools, you can ensure that your application's data is accurate and secure.