Introduction to TypeScript Decorators


TypeScript decorators are a powerful and advanced feature that allows you to add metadata and behavior to class declarations, methods, and properties. Decorators are often used for aspects like logging, validation, authentication, and more. In this guide, we'll provide an in-depth introduction to TypeScript decorators and show you how to use them with sample code.

Why Use Decorators?

Decorators enhance the readability and maintainability of your code by separating concerns. They can be used for various purposes:

  • Logging: Decorators can log method calls, making it easier to track the application's behavior.
  • Validation: You can use decorators to validate data before it's processed.
  • Authentication: Implement authentication checks with decorators to secure specific routes or methods.
  • Caching: Decorators can cache the results of methods to improve performance.
  • Dependency Injection: Frameworks like Angular use decorators for dependency injection.

Using Decorators

Decorators are functions that are prefixed by the @ symbol and can be applied to classes, methods, and properties. You can create custom decorators or use built-in ones provided by TypeScript or third-party libraries.

Applying a Decorator to a Class

Decorators can be applied to classes. Here's an example of a simple class decorator:

function MyDecorator(target: Function) {
console.log('Class decorator applied to:', target);
class MyClass {
constructor() {
console.log('Class instantiated.');
const instance = new MyClass();

The @MyDecorator line applies the MyDecorator function to the MyClass class, which logs a message when the class is instantiated.

Applying a Decorator to a Method

Decorators can also be applied to methods. Here's an example:

function LogMethod(target: any, key: string, descriptor: PropertyDescriptor) {
const originalMethod = descriptor.value;
descriptor.value = function (...args: any[]) {
console.log(`Method ${key} called with arguments: ${args}`);
return originalMethod.apply(this, args);
return descriptor;
class ExampleClass {
greet(name: string) {
return `Hello, ${name}!`;
const example = new ExampleClass();

In this example, the LogMethod decorator logs method calls and their arguments.


TypeScript decorators are a valuable tool for adding behavior and metadata to your classes, methods, and properties. They enable you to separate concerns and enhance the maintainability of your code. As you become more familiar with decorators, you can use them to implement various features and functionalities in your TypeScript applications.