Classes and objects are fundamental concepts in Python's Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) paradigm. They provide a way to structure and model data and behavior. In this guide, we'll explore the basics of classes and objects in Python, along with sample code to help you get started.

What Are Classes and Objects?

In Python, a class is a blueprint or template for creating objects. An object is an instance of a class and represents a real-world entity. Classes define attributes (data) and methods (functions) that objects of that class will have.

Defining a Class

You can define a class using the class keyword. Here's an example of a simple class representing a "Person" with a name attribute:

# Defining a class
class Person:
def __init__(self, name): = name
# Creating an object (instance)
person1 = Person("Alice")
person2 = Person("Bob")

Attributes and Methods

Attributes are variables that store data about an object, and methods are functions that define the behavior of an object. In the example above, "name" is an attribute, and __init__() is a special method called the constructor.

Accessing Attributes and Methods

You can access object attributes and call methods using the dot notation. For example, to access the name attribute:

# Accessing an attribute
print( # Output: "Alice"

Adding Methods

You can add methods to a class to define its behavior. Here's an example of adding a method to the "Person" class to greet:

# Adding a method
class Person:
def __init__(self, name): = name
def greet(self):
return "Hello, my name is " +
# Creating an object
person = Person("Charlie")
# Calling the method
greeting = person.greet()
print(greeting) # Output: "Hello, my name is Charlie"


Classes and objects are powerful tools for structuring and modeling your code in Python. They enable you to create reusable and organized code, representing real-world entities as objects with attributes and behaviors. Understanding classes and objects is essential for effective Python programming.